Medieval Battles - Battle Of Lewes 1264 AD
14 May 1264
Barons v Royalists.
Estimated size of armies: Royal 10,000, Rebels 5,000
For the barons: Simon de Montfort and Gilbert de Clare.
For the royalists: King Henry III, Prince Edward (Longshanks), Richard of Cornwall.
Reason For Battle
To force Henry III to abide by the Provisions of Oxford, commonly regarded as England's first written constitution.
Battle Key Points
Prince Edward and Henry III were holding separate parts of the land - Edward in the Castle, the King in the Priory. Edward launched an early attack in the morning without consulting his father. Although the attack was successful it forced his father, Henry III, to also attack up hill against the main part of the rebel army. He was beaten back and the fighting continued in the streets of Lewes. Eventually both Edward and Henry were captured.
Henry III was forced to sign the Mise of Lewes which basically reinstated the Provisions of Oxford.
Subsequently Prince Edward escaped captivity and defeated and killed de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham.
The timeline of medieval battles in the 13th century is useful to read in conjunction with this.